Tuesday, March 20, 2018

Ocean Bottom Pressure Data - 2

Fig. 1a
Fig. 1b
I. Background

This is a follow-up to some of the investigation I am doing concerning Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) records contained in various public access sites (e.g. PSMSL & NDBC).

The gist of it is that I have to find ways to use this data differently than some of the other publicly available data.

The basic reason for that is the short amount of time the deep water instruments survive before repair and/or replacement (Ocean Bottom Pressure Data).

One reason bottom pressure records are so important is illustrated by science that until recently has been lost, or worse, ignored.

Sea level change (SLC) is composed of both sea level fall (SLF) and sea level rise (SLR).

The first scientific paper to enlighten us to this reality came to us over a century ago, that is, one hundred and thirty years ago to be exact (see (Woodward 1888).

The only modern scientists to honor this reality, as far as I know, said this about that seminal work:
To our knowledge, Woodward (1888) was the first to demonstrate that the rapid melting of an ice sheet would lead to a geographically variable sea level
Fig. 2
change. Woodward (1888) assumed a rigid, non-rotating Earth, and therefore self-gravitation of the surface load was the only contributor to the predicted departure from a geographically uniform (i.e. eustatic) sea level rise. This departure was large and counter-intuitive. Specifically, sea level was predicted to fall within ∼2000 km of a melting ice sheet, and to rise with progressively higher amplitude at greater distances. The physics governing this redistribution is straightforward.
(The World According To Measurements - 5). That reality is now gaining recognition (whether scientists know it or not) in our scientific endeavors (NASA Busts The Ghost).

This reality is now replacing the mythological "bathtub model" (The Bathtub Model Doesn't Hold Water, 2, 3, 4).

II. The Current Approach

We now know and know quite well that the re-distribution of ocean water when ice sheets melt causes sea level to vary from location to location for various reasons.

Fig. 3
It so happens that the highest sea level that results is far out at sea, away from tide gauge stations along the coasts.

The satellite records are not as exact, at the centimeter and millimeter levels, as the tide gauge station records are.

So, bottom pressure records that are used to detect tsunami events and warn endangered populations about them now have another promising mission (helping researchers watch less immediate but certain-to-take-place dangers).

Fig. 4
That mission is to detect and record sea level changes at deep water locations based upon the expectations shown in Fig. 1b.

Today's graphs are based on the tide gauge, satellite, and bottom pressure records at some of the ocean basins shown in Fig. 1a.

Those tide gauge, satellite, and bottom pressure locations and their data are listed at the bottom of this post (organized by ocean basin) in case you care to consider them.

III. Current Status

I use an array of twelve depth levels in which to average the OBP in situ measurements taken by OBP instruments.

Fig. 5
That way I can detect changes in pressure that indicate an instrument failure.

Currently a stream of OBP data can abruptly change from say 1000 to 3000 from one day to the next.

This indicates that an equipment failure and repair and/or replacement has taken place.
Fig. 6

By separating the measurement records into twelve depth levels I isolate those episodes into manageable lists, then when finalizing the averaging, I use the level with the most data (the level with the most measurements).

Next, in the software development process, I will fuse the separate levels together, if they are close enough in their recorded values.

For example, currently if an in situ measurement stream jumps from 999.5 to 1000.8 those values will be in two separate measurement lists, even though they are close enough to be used together.

Fusing the lists together when appropriate will result in a more robust dataset which will aid our understanding of sea level changes in remote ocean areas.

IV. Why OBP Records Matter

Fig. 7

The great ice sheets are being studied with more intensity in recent years because, for one thing, the rate of sea level change is accelerating.

New research discoveries show that things are moving faster than expected.

Fig. 8
OBP records can give us a very quick heads up (like with tsunami warnings) that an area's sea level has changed.

That in turn can tell us which ice sheet is causing it by its melting.

The deep waters will rise differently at one location compared to another deep water location.

Fig. 9
We can't determine the changes at maximum accuracy without good, long lasting OBP instruments that can determine sea level change at certain locations.

The rate of OBP change can tell us which ice sheet's melt rate is changing, like the coastal tide gauge stations do for coastal areas (SLC Fingerprints R Us - 2).

V. Some Example Events

Before closing, let me mention some real world events that are examples of what we need to keep an eye on.

One type of ice sheet behavior recently discovered shows the magnitude of what is going on:
"Supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet are expanding inland, but the impact on ice flow is equivocal because interior surface conditions may preclude the transfer of surface water to the bed. Here we use a well-constrained 3D model to demonstrate that supraglacial lakes in Greenland drain when tensile-stress perturbations propagate fractures in areas where fractures are normally absent or closed. These melt-induced perturbations escalate when lakes as far as 80 km apart form expansive networks and drain in rapid succession. The result is a tensile shock that establishes new surface-to-bed hydraulic pathways in areas where crevasses transiently open. We show evidence for open crevasses 135 km inland from the ice margin, which is much farther inland than previously considered possible. We hypothesise that inland expansion of lakes will deliver water and heat to isolated regions of the ice sheet’s interior where the impact on ice flow is potentially large."
(Greenland Ice Melt). That "potentially large" event can lead to other potentially large events:
"A shutdown of ocean convection in the subpolar North Atlantic, triggered by enhanced melting over Greenland, is regarded as a potential transition point into a fundamentally different climate regime. Noting that a key uncertainty for future convection resides in the relative importance of melting in summer and atmospheric forcing in winter, we investigate the extent to which summer conditions constrain convec-tion with a comprehensive dataset, including hydrographic records that are over a decade in length from the convection regions. We find that warm and fresh summers, characterized by increased sea surface temperatures, freshwater concen-trations and melting, are accompanied by reduced heat and buoyancy losses in winter, which entail a longer persistence of the freshwater near the surface and contribute to delaying convection. By shortening the time span for the convective freshwater export, the identified seasonal dynamics intro-duce a potentially critical threshold that is crossed when sub-stantial amounts of freshwater from one summer are carried over into the next and accumulate. Warm and fresh summers in the Irminger Sea are followed by particularly short convec-tion periods. We estimate that in the winter 2010–2011, after the warmest and freshest Irminger Sea summer on our record, ~40% of the surface freshwater was retained."
(Ocean Circulation Impeded by melt, cf. Extreme Sea Level). There are many reasons for watching what the OBP records are telling us.

VI. Conclusion

That is why I will continue to watch them, and then share what I learn with Dredd Blog readers.

The previous post in this series is here.

This is a list of OBP and PSMSL stations used to make the graphs in this post:

***** Ocean Area: North Atlantic *****

----- Ocean Bottom Stations -----

OBP stn: 44401
OBP stn: 41420
OBP stn: 41421
OBP stn: N4_Vg_P2
OBP stn: N1_Pc2_P1
OBP stn: N1_Pc2_P2
OBP stn: N4_Kl2
OBP stn: N5_Kw2
OBP stn: NESS_A1
OBP stn: GOM_PcB_P1
OBP stn: GOM_PcB_P2
OBP stn: N5_Kw1
OBP stn: N1_Pc1_P2
OBP stn: N1_Pc1_P1
OBP stn: NESS_A2
OBP stn: NESS_U2
OBP stn: N2_USGS3
OBP stn: NESS_U1
OBP stn: GOM_PcA_P2
OBP stn: GOM_PcA_P1
OBP stn: N2_USGS1
OBP stn: N2_USGS2
OBP stn: NESS_B3
OBP stn: NESS_B1
OBP stn: NESS_B6
OBP stn: NESS_A4
OBP stn: N2_Kl1
OBP stn: NESS_B23
OBP stn: NESS_B22A
OBP stn: NESS_B22B
OBP stn: NESS_B21
OBP stn: GOM_MoB
OBP stn: GOM_CPo
OBP stn: GOM_CaL
OBP stn: NESS_PcA_P2
OBP stn: NESS_PcA_P1
OBP stn: NESS_B4
OBP stn: 41424
OBP stn: 42409
OBP stn: 44402

----- PSMSL stations -----

stn num: 1646, stn name: SETTLEMENT POINT
stn num: 1928, stn name: SETTLEMENT POINT A
stn num: 470, stn name: ZEEBRUGGE
stn num: 413, stn name: OOSTENDE
stn num: 489, stn name: NIEUWPOORT
stn num: 368, stn name: ST. GEORGES / ESSO PIER (BERMUDA)
stn num: 195, stn name: SAINT JOHN
stn num: 1230, stn name: DIGBY
stn num: 1158, stn name: YARMOUTH
stn num: 1259, stn name: BOUTILIER POINT
stn num: 96, stn name: HALIFAX
stn num: 1332, stn name: POINT TUPPER
stn num: 1299, stn name: NORTH SYDNEY
stn num: 1121, stn name: PICTOU
stn num: 2031, stn name: CAP AUX MEULES
stn num: 427, stn name: CHARLOTTETOWN
stn num: 1330, stn name: RUSTICO
stn num: 1143, stn name: GRINDSTONE
stn num: 1326, stn name: SHEDIAC BAY
stn num: 1309, stn name: POINTE-DU-CHENE
stn num: 1138, stn name: POINT SAPIN
stn num: 1349, stn name: LOWER ESCUMINAC
stn num: 2069, stn name: BELLEDUNE
stn num: 1358, stn name: DALHOUSIE
stn num: 1213, stn name: RIVIERE-AU-RENARD
stn num: 1199, stn name: STE-ANNE-DES-MONTS
stn num: 138, stn name: POINTE-AU-PERE
stn num: 1597, stn name: RIMOUSKI
stn num: 1284, stn name: RIVIERE-DU-LOUP
stn num: 1223, stn name: ST-JEAN-PORT-JOLI
stn num: 999, stn name: ST-FRANCOIS
stn num: 173, stn name: QUEBEC (LAUZON)
stn num: 201, stn name: DESCHAILLONS
stn num: 137, stn name: PORT-SAINT-FRANCOIS
stn num: 1798, stn name: BECANCOUR
stn num: 126, stn name: TROIS-RIVIERES
stn num: 1005, stn name: CHAMPLAIN
stn num: 144, stn name: BATISCAN
stn num: 387, stn name: GRONDINES
stn num: 951, stn name: PORTNEUF
stn num: 192, stn name: NEUVILLE
stn num: 1244, stn name: ST-JOSEPH-DE-LA-RIVE
stn num: 1392, stn name: PORT-ALFRED
stn num: 1219, stn name: TADOUSSAC
stn num: 1218, stn name: BAIE COMEAU
stn num: 1322, stn name: SEPT-ILES
stn num: 176, stn name: HARRINGTON HBR
stn num: 1280, stn name: SAVAGE COVE
stn num: 1044, stn name: LARK HARBOUR
stn num: 392, stn name: PORT AUX BASQUES
stn num: 2135, stn name: BONAVISTA
stn num: 1321, stn name: ARGENTIA
stn num: 393, stn name: ST. JOHN'S
stn num: 1278, stn name: WEST ST. MODESTE
stn num: 1029, stn name: NAIN
stn num: 447, stn name: CHURCHILL
stn num: 2286, stn name: MARIEL BOCA
stn num: 563, stn name: GIBARA
stn num: 2288, stn name: NUEVITAS PUNTA PRACTICO
stn num: 2021, stn name: CASILDA II
stn num: 2289, stn name: CAYO LOCO
stn num: 1297, stn name: CABO DE SAN ANTONIO
stn num: 1909, stn name: ISABELA DE SAGUA
stn num: 2287, stn name: SANTIAGO DE CUBA
stn num: 1934, stn name: MANZANILLO
stn num: 120, stn name: GEDSER
stn num: 762, stn name: RODBYHAVN
stn num: 1812, stn name: TEJN
stn num: 82, stn name: KOBENHAVN
stn num: 119, stn name: HORNBAEK
stn num: 113, stn name: KORSOR
stn num: 98, stn name: SLIPSHAVN
stn num: 1197, stn name: FYNSHAV
stn num: 81, stn name: FREDERICIA
stn num: 76, stn name: AARHUS
stn num: 91, stn name: FREDERIKSHAVN
stn num: 89, stn name: HIRTSHALS
stn num: 703, stn name: HANSTHOLM
stn num: 80, stn name: ESBJERG
stn num: 468, stn name: DUNKERQUE
stn num: 455, stn name: CALAIS
stn num: 471, stn name: BOULOGNE
stn num: 467, stn name: CHERBOURG
stn num: 454, stn name: ST. MALO
stn num: 1347, stn name: ROSCOFF
stn num: 1294, stn name: LE CONQUET
stn num: 1, stn name: BREST
stn num: 1301, stn name: CONCARNEAU
stn num: 1247, stn name: PORT TUDY
stn num: 1921, stn name: LE CROUESTY
stn num: 457, stn name: ST. NAZAIRE
stn num: 1078, stn name: POINTE ST. GILDAS
stn num: 1747, stn name: LES SABLES D OLONNE
stn num: 466, stn name: LA ROCHELLE-LA PALLICE
stn num: 1915, stn name: PORT BLOC
stn num: 459, stn name: LE VERDON
stn num: 1801, stn name: BOUCAU
stn num: 1918, stn name: ARCACHON-EYRAC
stn num: 469, stn name: ST JEAN DE LUZ (SOCOA)
stn num: 1448, stn name: KOSEROW
stn num: 397, stn name: SASSNITZ
stn num: 11, stn name: WARNEMUNDE 2
stn num: 8, stn name: WISMAR 2
stn num: 13, stn name: TRAVEMUNDE
stn num: 789, stn name: KIEL-HOLTENAU
stn num: 1036, stn name: AMRUM (WITTDUEN)
stn num: 7, stn name: CUXHAVEN 2
stn num: 1037, stn name: BORKUM (FISCHERBALJE)
stn num: 981, stn name: GIBRALTAR
stn num: 916, stn name: MALIN HEAD
stn num: 432, stn name: DUBLIN
stn num: 435, stn name: DOUGLAS
stn num: 1793, stn name: PORT ERIN
stn num: 1795, stn name: ST HELIER (JERSEY) 2
stn num: 690, stn name: PROGRESO
stn num: 918, stn name: TUXPAN
stn num: 1020, stn name: CIUDAD MADERO
stn num: 24, stn name: DELFZIJL
stn num: 236, stn name: WEST-TERSCHELLING
stn num: 25, stn name: HARLINGEN
stn num: 23, stn name: DEN HELDER
stn num: 32, stn name: IJMUIDEN
stn num: 22, stn name: HOEK VAN HOLLAND
stn num: 9, stn name: MAASSLUIS
stn num: 1551, stn name: ROOMPOT BUITEN
stn num: 20, stn name: VLISSINGEN
stn num: 47, stn name: STAVANGER
stn num: 302, stn name: TREGDE
stn num: 1113, stn name: HELGEROA
stn num: 62, stn name: OSLO
stn num: 33, stn name: OSCARSBORG
stn num: 1759, stn name: VIKER
stn num: 64, stn name: GDANSK/NOWY PORT
stn num: 645, stn name: WLADYSLAWOWO
stn num: 644, stn name: USTKA
stn num: 643, stn name: KOLOBRZEG
stn num: 2, stn name: SWINOUJSCIE
stn num: 1482, stn name: VIANA
stn num: 791, stn name: LEIXOES
stn num: 1402, stn name: AVEIRO
stn num: 52, stn name: CASCAIS
stn num: 1336, stn name: LISBON
stn num: 1425, stn name: SETROIA
stn num: 1456, stn name: SINES
stn num: 162, stn name: LAGOS
stn num: 258, stn name: PONTA DELGADA
stn num: 380, stn name: ANGRA DO HEROISMO
stn num: 2171, stn name: LAJES DAS FLORES
stn num: 843, stn name: SANTA CRUZ DAS FLORES
stn num: 1030, stn name: FUNCHAL
stn num: 2024, stn name: FUNCHAL II
stn num: 1806, stn name: BILBAO
stn num: 485, stn name: SANTANDER I
stn num: 1051, stn name: SANTANDER II
stn num: 1807, stn name: SANTANDER III
stn num: 1871, stn name: GIJON II
stn num: 484, stn name: LA CORUNA I
stn num: 763, stn name: LA CORUNA II
stn num: 1808, stn name: LA CORUNA III
stn num: 2053, stn name: FERROL 2
stn num: 1897, stn name: VILLAGARCIA
stn num: 483, stn name: VIGO
stn num: 1898, stn name: VIGO II
stn num: 209, stn name: CADIZ II
stn num: 985, stn name: CADIZ III
stn num: 1883, stn name: HUELVA
stn num: 1809, stn name: BONANZA
stn num: 2047, stn name: SEVILLA-ESCLUSA
stn num: 490, stn name: ALGECIRAS
stn num: 2117, stn name: ALGECIRAS B
stn num: 2055, stn name: ALGECIRAS 2
stn num: 488, stn name: TARIFA
stn num: 2054, stn name: TARIFA 2
stn num: 496, stn name: MALAGA
stn num: 1810, stn name: MALAGA II
stn num: 1940, stn name: MOTRIL 2
stn num: 1455, stn name: ALMERIA
stn num: 2056, stn name: ALMERIA 2
stn num: 1460, stn name: CARTAGENA
stn num: 208, stn name: ALICANTE I
stn num: 960, stn name: ALICANTE II
stn num: 1813, stn name: VALENCIA
stn num: 2058, stn name: GANDIA
stn num: 2059, stn name: SAGUNTO
stn num: 498, stn name: CEUTA
stn num: 2057, stn name: MELILLA
stn num: 593, stn name: ARRECIFE
stn num: 1710, stn name: ARRECIFE-D
stn num: 2048, stn name: FUERTEVENTURA
stn num: 2051, stn name: HIERRO
stn num: 2066, stn name: ARRECIFE 2
stn num: 568, stn name: SANTA CRUZ DE LA PALMA B
stn num: 2064, stn name: LA PALMA
stn num: 2065, stn name: LA GOMERA
stn num: 303, stn name: SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE I
stn num: 1803, stn name: TENERIFE
stn num: 2050, stn name: GRANADILLA
stn num: 565, stn name: LAS PALMAS C (PUERTO DE LA LUZ)
stn num: 1802, stn name: LAS PALMAS D
stn num: 2049, stn name: ARINAGA
stn num: 2113, stn name: KUNGSVIK
stn num: 179, stn name: SMOGEN
stn num: 2112, stn name: STENUNGSUND
stn num: 74, stn name: GOTEBORG - KLIPPAN
stn num: 1236, stn name: GOTEBORG - TORSHAMNEN
stn num: 2111, stn name: RINGHALS
stn num: 73, stn name: VARBERG
stn num: 330, stn name: KLAGSHAMN
stn num: 2108, stn name: SKANOR
stn num: 2109, stn name: BARSEBACK
stn num: 2110, stn name: VIKEN
stn num: 72, stn name: YSTAD
stn num: 2107, stn name: SIMRISHAMN
stn num: 70, stn name: KUNGSHOLMSFORT
stn num: 2106, stn name: OSKARSHAMN
stn num: 69, stn name: OLANDS NORRA UDDE
stn num: 2105, stn name: VISBY
stn num: 2104, stn name: MARVIKEN
stn num: 68, stn name: LANDSORT
stn num: 2132, stn name: LANDSORT NORRA
stn num: 31, stn name: NEDRE SODERTALJE
stn num: 78, stn name: STOCKHOLM
stn num: 1109, stn name: WICK
stn num: 944, stn name: INVERGORDON
stn num: 1281, stn name: BUCKIE
stn num: 361, stn name: ABERDEEN I
stn num: 1074, stn name: ROSYTH
stn num: 802, stn name: LEITH
stn num: 1526, stn name: LEITH II
stn num: 95, stn name: NORTH SHIELDS
stn num: 1505, stn name: WHITBY
stn num: 286, stn name: IMMINGHAM
stn num: 1632, stn name: CROMER
stn num: 754, stn name: LOWESTOFT
stn num: 214, stn name: FELIXSTOWE
stn num: 742, stn name: HARWICH
stn num: 1224, stn name: WALTON ON THE NAZE
stn num: 334, stn name: SOUTHEND
stn num: 335, stn name: TILBURY
stn num: 3, stn name: SHEERNESS
stn num: 2276, stn name: HERNE BAY
stn num: 2277, stn name: DEAL
stn num: 255, stn name: DOVER
stn num: 1548, stn name: NEWHAVEN
stn num: 350, stn name: PORTSMOUTH
stn num: 2280, stn name: ARUN PLATFORM
stn num: 2278, stn name: SANDOWN PIER
stn num: 2279, stn name: SWANAGE PIER
stn num: 1878, stn name: BOURNEMOUTH
stn num: 1773, stn name: WEYMOUTH
stn num: 2282, stn name: WEST BAY HARBOUR
stn num: 2283, stn name: TEIGNMOUTH PIER
stn num: 982, stn name: DEVONPORT
stn num: 202, stn name: NEWLYN
stn num: 2284, stn name: PORT ISAAC
stn num: 1855, stn name: ST. MARYS
stn num: 1214, stn name: ILFRACOMBE
stn num: 1758, stn name: HINKLEY POINT
stn num: 2011, stn name: PORTBURY
stn num: 257, stn name: AVONMOUTH
stn num: 2285, stn name: SEVERN BRIDGE
stn num: 1832, stn name: NEWPORT
stn num: 967, stn name: SWANSEA
stn num: 1732, stn name: MUMBLES
stn num: 66, stn name: MILFORD HAVEN (NEWTON NOYES)
stn num: 1700, stn name: MILFORD HAVEN (HAKIN)
stn num: 939, stn name: FISHGUARD
stn num: 1731, stn name: FISHGUARD II
stn num: 1771, stn name: BARMOUTH
stn num: 5, stn name: HOLYHEAD
stn num: 1854, stn name: LLANDUDNO
stn num: 765, stn name: BIRKENHEAD (ALFRED DOCK)
stn num: 1774, stn name: LIVERPOOL (GLADSTONE DOCK)
stn num: 936, stn name: HEYSHAM
stn num: 1794, stn name: WORKINGTON
stn num: 1215, stn name: PORTPATRICK
stn num: 755, stn name: MILLPORT
stn num: 1772, stn name: ISLAY (PORT ELLEN)
stn num: 1491, stn name: TOBERMORY
stn num: 1112, stn name: ULLAPOOL
stn num: 314, stn name: STORNOWAY
stn num: 1775, stn name: KINLOCHBERVIE
stn num: 1867, stn name: PORTRUSH
stn num: 861, stn name: BELFAST
stn num: 1856, stn name: BANGOR
stn num: 497, stn name: PORT ISABEL
stn num: 1038, stn name: PORT MANSFIELD
stn num: 919, stn name: PADRE ISLAND
stn num: 922, stn name: PORT ARANSAS
stn num: 538, stn name: ROCKPORT
stn num: 725, stn name: FREEPORT
stn num: 828, stn name: GALVESTON I
stn num: 161, stn name: GALVESTON II
stn num: 920, stn name: SABINE PASS
stn num: 1835, stn name: SABINE PASS NORTH
stn num: 440, stn name: EUGENE ISLAND
stn num: 2297, stn name: USCG FREEPORT
stn num: 1903, stn name: CORPUS CHRISTI
stn num: 526, stn name: GRAND ISLE
stn num: 2296, stn name: SHELL BEACH
stn num: 1884, stn name: WAVELAND
stn num: 1715, stn name: BAY WAVELAND YACHT CLUB
stn num: 1156, stn name: DAUPHIN ISLAND
stn num: 2215, stn name: BAY WAVELAND YACHT CLUB II
stn num: 246, stn name: PENSACOLA
stn num: 1641, stn name: PANAMA CITY
stn num: 1193, stn name: APALACHICOLA
stn num: 1714, stn name: TURKEY POINT
stn num: 1136, stn name: ST. MARKS
stn num: 1670, stn name: SHELL POINT
stn num: 428, stn name: CEDAR KEY II
stn num: 1638, stn name: CLEARWATER BEACH
stn num: 520, stn name: ST. PETERSBURG
stn num: 1106, stn name: FORT MYERS
stn num: 1107, stn name: NAPLES
stn num: 188, stn name: KEY WEST
stn num: 1701, stn name: VACA KEY
stn num: 1187, stn name: MARATHON SHORES
stn num: 1424, stn name: KEY COLONY BEACH
stn num: 363, stn name: MIAMI BEACH
stn num: 1717, stn name: HAULOVER PIER
stn num: 1696, stn name: LAKE WORTH PIER
stn num: 1669, stn name: PALM BEACH
stn num: 270, stn name: DAYTONA BEACH
stn num: 1182, stn name: DAYTONA BEACH SHORES
stn num: 1858, stn name: VIRGINIA KEY
stn num: 316, stn name: MAYPORT
stn num: 716, stn name: JACKSONVILLE
stn num: 2123, stn name: TRIDENT PIER
stn num: 112, stn name: FERNANDINA BEACH
stn num: 395, stn name: FORT PULASKI
stn num: 1537, stn name: BEAUFORT
stn num: 234, stn name: CHARLESTON I
stn num: 1721, stn name: GENERAL DYNAMICS PIER
stn num: 1651, stn name: SOUTH ISLAND PLANTATION
stn num: 1720, stn name: BUCKSPORT
stn num: 1444, stn name: SPRINGMAID PIER
stn num: 862, stn name: MYRTLE BEACH
stn num: 1431, stn name: SOUTHPORT
stn num: 2294, stn name: CAPE HATTERAS
stn num: 396, stn name: WILMINGTON
stn num: 2295, stn name: BEAUFORT
stn num: 1636, stn name: DUCK PIER OUTSIDE
stn num: 945, stn name: VIRGINIA BEACH
stn num: 399, stn name: PORTSMOUTH (NORFOLK NAVY YARD)
stn num: 1635, stn name: CHESAPEAKE BAY BR. TUN.
stn num: 299, stn name: SEWELLS POINT
stn num: 597, stn name: GLOUCESTER POINT
stn num: 1295, stn name: CAMBRIDGE II
stn num: 360, stn name: WASHINGTON DC
stn num: 971, stn name: PINEY POINT
stn num: 412, stn name: SOLOMON'S ISLAND (BIOL. LAB.)
stn num: 1203, stn name: GINGERVILLE CREEK
stn num: 311, stn name: ANNAPOLIS (NAVAL ACADEMY)
stn num: 148, stn name: BALTIMORE
stn num: 1338, stn name: MATAPEAKE
stn num: 636, stn name: KIPTOPEKE BEACH
stn num: 1337, stn name: INDIAN RIVER INLET
stn num: 224, stn name: LEWES (BREAKWATER HARBOR)
stn num: 2292, stn name: OCEAN CITY INLET
stn num: 135, stn name: PHILADELPHIA (PIER 9N)
stn num: 1654, stn name: TRENTON
stn num: 786, stn name: REEDY POINT
stn num: 1153, stn name: CAPE MAY
stn num: 180, stn name: ATLANTIC CITY
stn num: 366, stn name: SANDY HOOK
stn num: 12, stn name: NEW YORK ( THE BATTERY)
stn num: 1637, stn name: BERGEN POINT
stn num: 519, stn name: MONTAUK
stn num: 875, stn name: PLUM ISLAND
stn num: 848, stn name: PORT JEFFERSON
stn num: 362, stn name: WILLETS POINT
stn num: 856, stn name: NEW ROCHELLE
stn num: 1068, stn name: BRIDGEPORT
stn num: 429, stn name: NEW LONDON
stn num: 430, stn name: PROVIDENCE (STATE PIER)
stn num: 351, stn name: NEWPORT
stn num: 776, stn name: BUZZARDS BAY
stn num: 367, stn name: WOODS HOLE (OCEAN. INST.)
stn num: 1111, stn name: NANTUCKET ISLAND
stn num: 775, stn name: SANDWICH MARINA
stn num: 235, stn name: BOSTON
stn num: 288, stn name: SEAVEY ISLAND
stn num: 2291, stn name: FORT POINT
stn num: 183, stn name: PORTLAND (MAINE)
stn num: 1279, stn name: ROCKLAND
stn num: 525, stn name: BAR HARBOR
stn num: 1524, stn name: CUTLER II
stn num: 1081, stn name: CUTLER
stn num: 332, stn name: EASTPORT
stn num: 336, stn name: TOWER PIER
stn num: 2281, stn name: LYMINGTON

***** Ocean Area: South Atlantic *****

----- Ocean Bottom Stations -----

OBP stn: 32401
OBP stn: 32402

----- PSMSL stations -----

stn num: 185, stn name: PUERTO DESEADO
stn num: 181, stn name: COMODORO RIVADAVIA
stn num: 501, stn name: PUERTO MADRYN
stn num: 867, stn name: PIRAMIDE
stn num: 870, stn name: ROSALES
stn num: 223, stn name: QUEQUEN
stn num: 857, stn name: MAR DEL PLATA (PUERTO)
stn num: 819, stn name: MAR DEL PLATA (NAVAL BASE)
stn num: 1542, stn name: MAR DE AJO
stn num: 157, stn name: BUENOS AIRES
stn num: 832, stn name: PALERMO
stn num: 864, stn name: ISLA MARTIN GARCIA
stn num: 542, stn name: IMBITUBA
stn num: 726, stn name: CANANEIA
stn num: 579, stn name: RIO DE JANEIRO
stn num: 1032, stn name: ILHA FISCAL
stn num: 511, stn name: ANTOFAGASTA
stn num: 510, stn name: ANTOFAGASTA 2
stn num: 619, stn name: CALDERA
stn num: 499, stn name: VALPARAISO
stn num: 1644, stn name: JUAN FERNANDEZ-C
stn num: 914, stn name: WALVIS BAY
stn num: 911, stn name: LUDERITZ
stn num: 836, stn name: PORT NOLLOTH
stn num: 1427, stn name: SALAMANDER
stn num: 1195, stn name: CAPE TOWN (GRANGER BAY)
stn num: 866, stn name: TABLE BAY HARBOUR
stn num: 826, stn name: SIMONS BAY
stn num: 433, stn name: COLONIA
stn num: 431, stn name: MONTEVIDEO (PUNTA LOBOS)
stn num: 434, stn name: PUNTA DEL ESTE
stn num: 764, stn name: LA PALOMA
stn num: 2261, stn name: IQUIQUE II
stn num: 2262, stn name: CORRAL II
stn num: 2264, stn name: ANCUD
stn num: 2265, stn name: MELINKA

***** Ocean Area: North Pacific *****

----- Ocean Bottom Stations -----

OBP stn: 52405
OBP stn: 52402
OBP stn: 46402
OBP stn: 46403
OBP stn: 21413
OBP stn: 21414
OBP stn: 21415
OBP stn: 21416
OBP stn: 21418
OBP stn: 21419
OBP stn: 46404
OBP stn: 46407
OBP stn: 46408
OBP stn: 46409
OBP stn: 46410
OBP stn: 46411
OBP stn: 46412
OBP stn: 46413
OBP stn: 46419
OBP stn: 52401
OBP stn: 52404

----- PSMSL stations -----

stn num: 167, stn name: PRINCE RUPERT
stn num: 840, stn name: LANGARA POINT
stn num: 829, stn name: QUEEN CHARLOTTE CITY
stn num: 984, stn name: BELLA BELLA
stn num: 1071, stn name: PORT HARDY
stn num: 554, stn name: ALERT BAY
stn num: 1323, stn name: CAMPBELL RIVER
stn num: 1825, stn name: NANOOSE BAY
stn num: 193, stn name: POINT ATKINSON
stn num: 175, stn name: VANCOUVER
stn num: 1245, stn name: NEW WESTMINSTER
stn num: 1255, stn name: STEVESTON
stn num: 1341, stn name: TSAWWASSEN
stn num: 688, stn name: FULFORD HARBOUR
stn num: 1152, stn name: PATRICIA BAY
stn num: 166, stn name: VICTORIA
stn num: 921, stn name: SOOKE
stn num: 842, stn name: PORT RENFREW
stn num: 1242, stn name: BAMFIELD
stn num: 527, stn name: PORT ALBERNI
stn num: 165, stn name: TOFINO
stn num: 1799, stn name: WINTER HARBOUR
stn num: 933, stn name: ZHAPO
stn num: 1745, stn name: XI SHA
stn num: 727, stn name: XIAMEN
stn num: 1406, stn name: SHANWEI
stn num: 1428, stn name: HAIKOU
stn num: 1407, stn name: DONGFANG
stn num: 934, stn name: KANMEN
stn num: 979, stn name: LUSI
stn num: 1405, stn name: LIANYUNGANG
stn num: 1404, stn name: SHIJIUSUO
stn num: 731, stn name: YANTAI
stn num: 1403, stn name: TANGGU
stn num: 614, stn name: QINHUANGDAO
stn num: 723, stn name: DALIAN
stn num: 1513, stn name: LAOHUTAN
stn num: 540, stn name: APRA HARBOUR
stn num: 2130, stn name: PAGO BAY
stn num: 1698, stn name: WAGLAN ISLAND
stn num: 987, stn name: CHI MA WAN
stn num: 1674, stn name: QUARRY BAY
stn num: 333, stn name: NORTH POINT
stn num: 1891, stn name: TAI MIU WAN
stn num: 1034, stn name: TAI PO KAU
stn num: 1366, stn name: TSIM BEI TSUI
stn num: 1685, stn name: LOK ON PAI
stn num: 1902, stn name: SHEK PIK
stn num: 772, stn name: MONBETU I
stn num: 1470, stn name: MONBETU II
stn num: 1104, stn name: ABASHIRI
stn num: 139, stn name: HANASAKI
stn num: 1442, stn name: HANASAKI II
stn num: 518, stn name: KUSHIRO
stn num: 869, stn name: URAKAWA I
stn num: 1296, stn name: URAKAWA II
stn num: 1194, stn name: MURORAN
stn num: 813, stn name: HAKODATE I
stn num: 1587, stn name: TAPPI
stn num: 1596, stn name: YOSIOKA
stn num: 1605, stn name: ESASHI
stn num: 1027, stn name: OSHORO II
stn num: 1103, stn name: WAKKANAI
stn num: 460, stn name: HACHINOHE I
stn num: 1266, stn name: HACHINOHE II
stn num: 1149, stn name: MIYAKO II
stn num: 1346, stn name: KAMAISI II
stn num: 1140, stn name: OFUNATO I
stn num: 1364, stn name: OFUNATO II
stn num: 131, stn name: AYUKAWA
stn num: 1345, stn name: SOMA
stn num: 635, stn name: ONAHAMA
stn num: 1544, stn name: CHOSHI-GYOKO
stn num: 1191, stn name: KATSUURA
stn num: 359, stn name: MERA
stn num: 1545, stn name: TOKYO III
stn num: 1222, stn name: TOKYO II
stn num: 952, stn name: SIBAURA
stn num: 722, stn name: YOKOSUKA
stn num: 130, stn name: ABURATSUBO
stn num: 1440, stn name: KAMINATO II (HATIZYO SIMA)
stn num: 1060, stn name: MIYAKE SIMA
stn num: 1061, stn name: KOZU SIMA
stn num: 1091, stn name: OKADA
stn num: 1343, stn name: ITO II
stn num: 1064, stn name: MINAMI IZU
stn num: 407, stn name: UCHIURA
stn num: 1437, stn name: TAGO
stn num: 808, stn name: SHIMIZU-MINATO
stn num: 1438, stn name: YAIZU
stn num: 1263, stn name: OMAEZAKI II
stn num: 1089, stn name: MAISAKA
stn num: 1026, stn name: ONISAKI
stn num: 860, stn name: NAGOYA
stn num: 1488, stn name: NAGOYA II
stn num: 627, stn name: TOBA
stn num: 1146, stn name: OWASE
stn num: 1090, stn name: URAGAMI
stn num: 134, stn name: KUSHIMOTO
stn num: 1150, stn name: SHIRAHAMA
stn num: 701, stn name: KAINAN
stn num: 816, stn name: WAKAYAMA
stn num: 817, stn name: TAN-NOWA
stn num: 1099, stn name: OSAKA
stn num: 846, stn name: KOBE
stn num: 1790, stn name: KOBE II
stn num: 1098, stn name: SUMOTO
stn num: 812, stn name: UNO
stn num: 1209, stn name: KURE IV
stn num: 1028, stn name: HIROSIMA
stn num: 1210, stn name: TOKUYAMA II
stn num: 1184, stn name: KOCHI II
stn num: 1320, stn name: KURE I
stn num: 1567, stn name: KOCHI III
stn num: 815, stn name: TOSA SHIMIZU
stn num: 461, stn name: UWAJIMA I
stn num: 1212, stn name: UWAJIMA II
stn num: 1062, stn name: MATSUYAMA II
stn num: 847, stn name: TAKAMATSU
stn num: 1789, stn name: TAKAMATSU II
stn num: 809, stn name: KOMATSUSHIMA
stn num: 1390, stn name: MUROTOMISAKI
stn num: 912, stn name: MOZI
stn num: 1293, stn name: OITA II
stn num: 133, stn name: HOSOJIMA
stn num: 814, stn name: ABURATSU
stn num: 1096, stn name: NISINOOMOTE
stn num: 1097, stn name: ODOMARI
stn num: 868, stn name: KAGOSHIMA I
stn num: 1142, stn name: MAKURAZAKI I
stn num: 1265, stn name: AKUNE
stn num: 810, stn name: MISUMI
stn num: 1102, stn name: OURA
stn num: 1386, stn name: KUCHINOTSU
stn num: 1100, stn name: NAGASAKI
stn num: 1101, stn name: FUKUE
stn num: 1147, stn name: SASEBO II
stn num: 1318, stn name: KARIYA
stn num: 661, stn name: IZUHARA
stn num: 1586, stn name: IZUHARA II
stn num: 1094, stn name: HAKATA
stn num: 1018, stn name: NASE II
stn num: 1522, stn name: NASE III
stn num: 1105, stn name: NAKANO SIMA
stn num: 1388, stn name: OKINAWA
stn num: 1151, stn name: NAHA
stn num: 1411, stn name: ISHIGAKI
stn num: 1671, stn name: ISHIGAKI II
stn num: 1830, stn name: SHIMONOSEKI III
stn num: 845, stn name: SHIMONOSEKI I
stn num: 1306, stn name: HAGI
stn num: 94, stn name: TONOURA
stn num: 1585, stn name: HAMADA II
stn num: 811, stn name: SAKAI
stn num: 1095, stn name: SAIGO
stn num: 1148, stn name: TAJIRI
stn num: 872, stn name: MIYAZU
stn num: 663, stn name: MAIZURU I
stn num: 1387, stn name: MAIZURU II
stn num: 1523, stn name: MAIZURU III
stn num: 1190, stn name: MIKUNI
stn num: 1389, stn name: TOYAMA
stn num: 132, stn name: WAJIMA
stn num: 753, stn name: KASHIWAZAKI
stn num: 1344, stn name: OGI
stn num: 1093, stn name: AWA SIMA
stn num: 752, stn name: NEZUGASEKI
stn num: 1264, stn name: OGA
stn num: 121, stn name: IWASAKI
stn num: 679, stn name: OMINATO
stn num: 721, stn name: ASAMUSHI
stn num: 1391, stn name: CHICHIJIMA
stn num: 1007, stn name: WONSAN
stn num: 956, stn name: INCHEON
stn num: 1699, stn name: ANHEUNG
stn num: 1675, stn name: BORYEONG
stn num: 1527, stn name: GUNSAN (OUTER PORT)
stn num: 1628, stn name: WIDO
stn num: 954, stn name: MOKPO
stn num: 1489, stn name: DAEHEUKSANDO
stn num: 1627, stn name: SEOGWIPO
stn num: 1066, stn name: JEJU
stn num: 1568, stn name: WANDO
stn num: 1546, stn name: GEOMUNDO
stn num: 1155, stn name: YEOSU
stn num: 1446, stn name: TONGYEONG
stn num: 1588, stn name: CHUJADO
stn num: 970, stn name: CHINHAE
stn num: 1445, stn name: GADEOKDO
stn num: 955, stn name: BUSAN
stn num: 997, stn name: ULSAN
stn num: 1324, stn name: POHANG
stn num: 1490, stn name: ULLEUNG
stn num: 1108, stn name: MUKHO
stn num: 1365, stn name: SOKCHO
stn num: 269, stn name: MACAU
stn num: 665, stn name: ENEWETOK
stn num: 595, stn name: WAKE ISLAND
stn num: 795, stn name: ENSENADA
stn num: 1457, stn name: BAHIA SAN QUINTIN
stn num: 1413, stn name: GUADALUPE ISLAND II
stn num: 1430, stn name: ISLA DE CEDROS
stn num: 1355, stn name: CABO SAN LUCAS
stn num: 695, stn name: LA PAZ
stn num: 1410, stn name: LORETO
stn num: 1357, stn name: BAHIA DE LOS ANGELES
stn num: 693, stn name: GUAYMAS
stn num: 712, stn name: MAZATLAN
stn num: 1474, stn name: SAIPAN
stn num: 680, stn name: TROMSO
stn num: 425, stn name: ANDENES
stn num: 681, stn name: HARSTAD
stn num: 531, stn name: EVENSKJAER
stn num: 312, stn name: NARVIK
stn num: 45, stn name: KABELVAG
stn num: 562, stn name: BODO
stn num: 1137, stn name: SANDNESSJOEN
stn num: 1241, stn name: RORVIK
stn num: 34, stn name: TRONDHEIM
stn num: 1748, stn name: TRONDHEIM 2
stn num: 313, stn name: HEIMSJO
stn num: 682, stn name: KRISTIANSUND
stn num: 509, stn name: ALESUND
stn num: 398, stn name: KJOLSDAL
stn num: 486, stn name: MALOY
stn num: 58, stn name: BERGEN
stn num: 548, stn name: SAN FERNANDO
stn num: 1711, stn name: SAN JOSE
stn num: 1705, stn name: PORT IRENE
stn num: 2172, stn name: CATICLAN MALAY AKLAN
stn num: 2151, stn name: PULUPANDAN
stn num: 2173, stn name: CURRIMAO ILOCOS NORTE
stn num: 2157, stn name: BALANACAN
stn num: 2176, stn name: SUBIC ZAMBALES
stn num: 145, stn name: MANILA
stn num: 522, stn name: LEGASPI
stn num: 2150, stn name: VIRAC
stn num: 2035, stn name: REAL QUEZON
stn num: 664, stn name: TACLOBAN
stn num: 394, stn name: CEBU
stn num: 604, stn name: AMBARCHIK
stn num: 605, stn name: RAU-CHUA
stn num: 730, stn name: AION
stn num: 606, stn name: PEVEK
stn num: 708, stn name: BILLINGA
stn num: 546, stn name: YUZHNO KURILSK
stn num: 827, stn name: NAGAEVO
stn num: 824, stn name: PETROPAVLOVSK-KAMCHATSKY
stn num: 2103, stn name: FORSMARK
stn num: 90, stn name: BJORN
stn num: 99, stn name: NEDRE GAVLE
stn num: 1211, stn name: SPIKARNA
stn num: 2102, stn name: SKAGSUDDE
stn num: 545, stn name: KEELUNG II
stn num: 1356, stn name: KAOHSIUNG II
stn num: 449, stn name: KO SICHANG
stn num: 1372, stn name: FRENCH FRIGATE SHOALS
stn num: 2192, stn name: FRENCH FRIGATE SHOALS B
stn num: 2129, stn name: PORT ALLEN
stn num: 756, stn name: NAWILIWILI BAY
stn num: 155, stn name: HONOLULU
stn num: 823, stn name: MOKUOLOE ISLAND
stn num: 2273, stn name: LANAI ISLAND
stn num: 521, stn name: KAHULUI HARBOR
stn num: 2128, stn name: KAWAIHAE
stn num: 487, stn name: ADAK SWEEPER COVE
stn num: 2303, stn name: ATKA
stn num: 757, stn name: UNALASKA
stn num: 2302, stn name: KING COVE
stn num: 1634, stn name: SAND POINT
stn num: 2304, stn name: VILLAGE COVE
stn num: 1179, stn name: ST. PAUL'S HARBOR
stn num: 2301, stn name: ALITAK
stn num: 567, stn name: KODIAK ISLAND
stn num: 1070, stn name: SELDOVIA
stn num: 2300, stn name: ELFIN COVE
stn num: 445, stn name: YAKUTAT
stn num: 426, stn name: SITKA
stn num: 2299, stn name: PORT ALEXANDER
stn num: 495, stn name: SKAGWAY
stn num: 405, stn name: JUNEAU
stn num: 225, stn name: KETCHIKAN
stn num: 385, stn name: NEAH BAY
stn num: 2298, stn name: LA PUSH
stn num: 2127, stn name: PORT ANGELES
stn num: 1633, stn name: CHERRY POINT
stn num: 384, stn name: FRIDAY HARBOR (OCEAN. LABS.)
stn num: 1354, stn name: TOKE POINT
stn num: 127, stn name: SEATTLE
stn num: 1325, stn name: PORT TOWNSEND
stn num: 265, stn name: ASTORIA (TONGUE POINT)
stn num: 1285, stn name: GARIBALDI
stn num: 1541, stn name: DEPOE BAY
stn num: 1196, stn name: SOUTH BEACH
stn num: 2214, stn name: GARIBALDI II
stn num: 1269, stn name: CHARLESTON II
stn num: 1640, stn name: PORT ORFORD
stn num: 378, stn name: CRESCENT CITY
stn num: 1639, stn name: N. SPIT
stn num: 2125, stn name: ARENA COVE
stn num: 1394, stn name: POINT REYES
stn num: 10, stn name: SAN FRANCISCO
stn num: 437, stn name: ALAMEDA (NAVAL AIR STATION)
stn num: 1663, stn name: SAN MATEO
stn num: 1352, stn name: MONTEREY
stn num: 508, stn name: PORT SAN LUIS
stn num: 1013, stn name: RINCON ISLAND
stn num: 2126, stn name: SANTA BARBARA
stn num: 377, stn name: SANTA MONICA (MUNICIPAL PIER)
stn num: 245, stn name: LOS ANGELES
stn num: 766, stn name: NEWPORT BAY
stn num: 256, stn name: LA JOLLA (SCRIPPS PIER)
stn num: 158, stn name: SAN DIEGO (QUARANTINE STATION)
stn num: 523, stn name: MIDWAY ISLAND
stn num: 1495, stn name: VUNGTAU
stn num: 2268, stn name: VUNG TAU II
stn num: 1449, stn name: QUINHON
stn num: 2267, stn name: QUI NHON II
stn num: 1475, stn name: DANANG
stn num: 1003, stn name: HONNGU

***** Ocean Area: Equatorial Pacific *****

----- Ocean Bottom Stations -----

OBP stn: 51406
OBP stn: 51425
OBP stn: 55012
OBP stn: 56001
OBP stn: 43413
OBP stn: 51407
OBP stn: 56003
OBP stn: 32411
OBP stn: 42407
OBP stn: 43412
OBP stn: 32412
OBP stn: 52406
OBP stn: 52403
OBP stn: 32413
OBP stn: 32066
OBP stn: 32067
OBP stn: 32489
OBP stn: 55023

----- PSMSL stations -----

stn num: 539, stn name: PAGO PAGO
stn num: 935, stn name: DARWIN
stn num: 1160, stn name: MILNER BAY (GROOTE EYLANDT)
stn num: 835, stn name: KARUMBA
stn num: 1157, stn name: WEIPA
stn num: 1268, stn name: BOOBY ISLAND
stn num: 1749, stn name: TURTLE HEAD
stn num: 1471, stn name: PORT DOUGLAS 2
stn num: 953, stn name: CAIRNS
stn num: 1629, stn name: MOURILYAN HARBOUR
stn num: 1630, stn name: LUCINDA
stn num: 637, stn name: TOWNSVILLE I
stn num: 1492, stn name: CAPE FERGUSON
stn num: 1159, stn name: BROOME
stn num: 1116, stn name: WYNDHAM
stn num: 1300, stn name: INCE POINT
stn num: 1368, stn name: GOODS ISLAND
stn num: 1769, stn name: PORTO GRANDE (ST. VINCENT) 2
stn num: 1914, stn name: PALMEIRA
stn num: 1422, stn name: NORTH SOUND
stn num: 1426, stn name: SOUTH SOUND
stn num: 618, stn name: ARICA
stn num: 1730, stn name: NAN SHA
stn num: 456, stn name: BUENAVENTURA
stn num: 639, stn name: TUMACO
stn num: 714, stn name: RIOHACHA
stn num: 572, stn name: CARTAGENA
stn num: 1450, stn name: PENRHYN
stn num: 844, stn name: QUEPOS
stn num: 2189, stn name: QUEPOS B
stn num: 552, stn name: PUERTO LIMON
stn num: 1313, stn name: ABIDJAN
stn num: 418, stn name: GUANTANAMO BAY
stn num: 1910, stn name: CABO CRUZ
stn num: 745, stn name: BARAHONA
stn num: 577, stn name: PUERTO PLATA
stn num: 555, stn name: LA LIBERTAD
stn num: 544, stn name: LA LIBERTAD II
stn num: 927, stn name: SAN CRISTOBAL
stn num: 1645, stn name: BALTRA-B
stn num: 1277, stn name: PUERTO BOLIVAR
stn num: 558, stn name: LA UNION
stn num: 1011, stn name: ACAJUTLA
stn num: 1302, stn name: ACAJUTLA 2
stn num: 1327, stn name: SUVA-A
stn num: 1805, stn name: LAUTOKA
stn num: 2012, stn name: ILE ROYALE
stn num: 1397, stn name: PAPEETE-B
stn num: 1555, stn name: NUKU HIVA
stn num: 2216, stn name: RANGIROA
stn num: 331, stn name: TAKORADI
stn num: 2272, stn name: PRICKLEY BAY
stn num: 1784, stn name: POINTE-A-PITRE
stn num: 1201, stn name: CHAMPERICO
stn num: 973, stn name: SAN JOSE
stn num: 777, stn name: SAN JOSE II
stn num: 1080, stn name: SANTO TOMAS DE CASTILLA
stn num: 779, stn name: PUERTO CASTILLA
stn num: 557, stn name: PUERTO CORTES
stn num: 2197, stn name: PRIGI
stn num: 2200, stn name: BENOA B
stn num: 2274, stn name: SAUMLAKI
stn num: 1709, stn name: BITUNG II
stn num: 744, stn name: PORT ROYAL
stn num: 1381, stn name: TARAWA-A
stn num: 1579, stn name: TARAWA-B
stn num: 1739, stn name: TARAWA-C
stn num: 1804, stn name: BETIO
stn num: 575, stn name: KANTON ISLAND
stn num: 1329, stn name: KANTON ISLAND-B
stn num: 1361, stn name: FANNING-B
stn num: 801, stn name: CHRISTMAS ISLAND
stn num: 1371, stn name: CHRISTMAS ISLAND II
stn num: 1819, stn name: MIRI
stn num: 1833, stn name: BINTULU
stn num: 1893, stn name: SEJINGKAT
stn num: 1879, stn name: LABUAN 2
stn num: 1733, stn name: KOTA KINABALU
stn num: 1876, stn name: KUDAT
stn num: 1834, stn name: SANDAKAN
stn num: 1877, stn name: LAHAT DATU
stn num: 1734, stn name: TAWAU
stn num: 513, stn name: KWAJALEIN
stn num: 1217, stn name: MAJURO-B
stn num: 1838, stn name: MAJURO-C
stn num: 1942, stn name: FORT-DE-FRANCE II
stn num: 737, stn name: MANZANILLO
stn num: 1818, stn name: MANZANILLO 2
stn num: 686, stn name: ACAPULCO
stn num: 1015, stn name: PUERTO ANGEL
stn num: 689, stn name: SALINA CRUZ
stn num: 796, stn name: CIUDAD DEL CARMEN
stn num: 692, stn name: COATZACOALCOS
stn num: 768, stn name: ALVARADO
stn num: 528, stn name: CHUUK
stn num: 1473, stn name: KAPINGAMARANGI
stn num: 1370, stn name: POHNPEI-B
stn num: 1925, stn name: POHNPEI C
stn num: 1374, stn name: NAURU
stn num: 1844, stn name: NAURU-B
stn num: 1252, stn name: MALAKAL-B
stn num: 668, stn name: PUERTO ARMUELLES
stn num: 1571, stn name: PUERTO ARMUELLES B
stn num: 163, stn name: BALBOA
stn num: 581, stn name: NAOS ISLAND
stn num: 1783, stn name: NAOS ISLAND 2
stn num: 1530, stn name: COCO SOLO
stn num: 169, stn name: CRISTOBAL
stn num: 1303, stn name: LAE
stn num: 1607, stn name: ALOTAU
stn num: 1610, stn name: PORT MORESBY II
stn num: 1164, stn name: RABAUL
stn num: 1608, stn name: KAVIENG
stn num: 1609, stn name: MANUS ISLAND
stn num: 1860, stn name: LOMBRUM
stn num: 1304, stn name: WEWAK
stn num: 1254, stn name: MADANG
stn num: 475, stn name: TALARA
stn num: 771, stn name: CHIMBOTE
stn num: 1274, stn name: CALLAO 2
stn num: 923, stn name: SAN JUAN
stn num: 458, stn name: MATARANI
stn num: 2188, stn name: MATARANI B
stn num: 2155, stn name: BALINTANG
stn num: 207, stn name: PUERTO PRINCESA
stn num: 2156, stn name: MATI
stn num: 537, stn name: DAVAO
stn num: 2152, stn name: PAGADIAN CITY
stn num: 2153, stn name: MAKAR
stn num: 2175, stn name: ZAMBOANGA CITY
stn num: 260, stn name: JOLO
stn num: 2154, stn name: MACABALAN PORT
stn num: 2158, stn name: TANDAG
stn num: 2174, stn name: MAMBAJAO CAMGUIN
stn num: 1708, stn name: SURIGAO
stn num: 2120, stn name: CULEBRA
stn num: 2209, stn name: ESPERANZA
stn num: 759, stn name: MAGUEYES ISLAND
stn num: 1001, stn name: SAN JUAN
stn num: 2121, stn name: AGUADILLA
stn num: 2122, stn name: MONA ISLAND
stn num: 1840, stn name: APIA B
stn num: 1816, stn name: DAKAR 2
stn num: 1373, stn name: HONIARA II
stn num: 1861, stn name: HONIARA-B
stn num: 415, stn name: PORT OF SPAIN
stn num: 1452, stn name: FUNAFUTI
stn num: 1839, stn name: FUNAFUTI B
stn num: 300, stn name: HILO
stn num: 598, stn name: JOHNSTON ISLAND
stn num: 1841, stn name: PORT VILA B
stn num: 1053, stn name: GUIRIA
stn num: 1393, stn name: CHARLOTTE AMALIE
stn num: 1447, stn name: LIME TREE BAY
stn num: 2118, stn name: CHRISTIANSTED HARBOUR
stn num: 2119, stn name: LAMESHUR BAY

***** Ocean Area: South Pacific *****

----- Ocean Bottom Stations -----

OBP stn: 55013
OBP stn: 55015
OBP stn: 54401
OBP stn: 51426
OBP stn: 55042
OBP stn: 55401

----- PSMSL stations -----

stn num: 821, stn name: NORFOLK ISLAND
stn num: 1462, stn name: EASTER ISLAND-D
stn num: 1272, stn name: EASTER ISLAND-E
stn num: 1751, stn name: SAN FELIX
stn num: 1843, stn name: RAROTONGA B
stn num: 1253, stn name: RIKITEA
stn num: 2217, stn name: TUBUAI
stn num: 852, stn name: NOUMEA-CHALEIX
stn num: 2134, stn name: NOUMEA-NUMBO
stn num: 217, stn name: AUCKLAND-WAITEMATA HARBOUR
stn num: 150, stn name: AUCKLAND II
stn num: 978, stn name: MOTURIKI ISLAND
stn num: 1590, stn name: TAURANGA (SALISBURY WHARF)
stn num: 1613, stn name: GISBORNE
stn num: 1750, stn name: NAPIER
stn num: 221, stn name: WELLINGTON HARBOUR
stn num: 500, stn name: WELLINGTON II
stn num: 247, stn name: PORT LYTTELTON
stn num: 259, stn name: LYTTELTON II
stn num: 998, stn name: TIMARU HARBOUR
stn num: 1643, stn name: PORT CHALMERS
stn num: 136, stn name: DUNEDIN II
stn num: 213, stn name: BLUFF (SOUTHLAND HARBOUR)
stn num: 1004, stn name: WESTPORT HARBOUR
stn num: 787, stn name: NELSON
stn num: 1621, stn name: WANGANUI
stn num: 996, stn name: PORT TARANAKI
stn num: 1065, stn name: WHANGAREI HARBOUR (MARSDEN POINT)
stn num: 1920, stn name: CHATHAM ISLAND
stn num: 1842, stn name: NUKU'ALOFA B

***** Ocean Area: North Indian *****

----- Ocean Bottom Stations -----

OBP stn: 23228
OBP stn: 23226

----- PSMSL stations -----

stn num: 1451, stn name: HIRON POINT
stn num: 1496, stn name: CHARCHANGA
stn num: 2196, stn name: CHITTAGONG A
stn num: 1454, stn name: KHEPUPARA
stn num: 1476, stn name: COX'S BAZAAR
stn num: 1408, stn name: BEIHAI
stn num: 596, stn name: KANDLA
stn num: 1943, stn name: VADINAR
stn num: 1395, stn name: OKHA
stn num: 770, stn name: VERAVAL
stn num: 1161, stn name: PARADIP
stn num: 1369, stn name: GANGRA
stn num: 1270, stn name: HALDIA
stn num: 417, stn name: SAUGOR/SAGAR
stn num: 543, stn name: DIAMOND HARBOUR
stn num: 369, stn name: CALCUTTA (GARDEN REACH)
stn num: 1002, stn name: TRIBENI
stn num: 2228, stn name: CHABAHAR II
stn num: 204, stn name: KARACHI
stn num: 841, stn name: HONDAU

***** Ocean Area: Equatorial Indian *****

----- Ocean Bottom Stations -----

OBP stn: 23401
OBP stn: 53401
OBP stn: 23218
OBP stn: 23219
OBP stn: 23223
OBP stn: 23227
OBP stn: 23461

----- PSMSL stations -----

stn num: 1740, stn name: DIEGO GARCIA-C
stn num: 2190, stn name: DIEGO GARCIA D
stn num: 983, stn name: COCOS ISLAND (HOME IS.)
stn num: 43, stn name: MUMBAI / BOMBAY (APOLLO BANDAR)
stn num: 1249, stn name: MARMAGAO
stn num: 1273, stn name: KARWAR
stn num: 1423, stn name: MANGALORE (PANAMBURU)
stn num: 696, stn name: MANGALORE
stn num: 438, stn name: COCHIN (WILLINGDON IS.)
stn num: 1072, stn name: TUTICORIN
stn num: 1258, stn name: TANGACHCHIMADAM
stn num: 1308, stn name: NAGAPPATTINAM
stn num: 205, stn name: CHENNAI / MADRAS
stn num: 414, stn name: VISHAKHAPATNAM
stn num: 2195, stn name: SABANG
stn num: 1752, stn name: SIBOLGA II
stn num: 2193, stn name: PADANG B
stn num: 2199, stn name: CILACAP B
stn num: 2183, stn name: MOMBASA II
stn num: 2198, stn name: LAMU B
stn num: 926, stn name: NOSY-BE
stn num: 1676, stn name: PULAU LANGKAWI
stn num: 1595, stn name: PULAU PINANG
stn num: 1594, stn name: LUMUT
stn num: 1591, stn name: PELABUHAN KELANG
stn num: 1593, stn name: TANJUNG KELING
stn num: 1677, stn name: KUKUP
stn num: 248, stn name: JOHOR BAHRU
stn num: 1702, stn name: TANJUNG SEDILI
stn num: 1678, stn name: PULAU TIOMAN
stn num: 1589, stn name: TANJUNG GELANG
stn num: 1592, stn name: CENDERING
stn num: 1703, stn name: GETING
stn num: 1707, stn name: GAN II
stn num: 1753, stn name: MALE-B
stn num: 1672, stn name: RODRIGUES IS
stn num: 1642, stn name: DZAOUDZI
stn num: 1754, stn name: SALALAH
stn num: 1846, stn name: POINT LA RUE
stn num: 1183, stn name: VICTORIA DOCK
stn num: 1746, stn name: TANJONG PAGAR
stn num: 1534, stn name: KEPPEL HARBOUR
stn num: 2032, stn name: BUKOM
stn num: 1351, stn name: RAFFLES LIGHT HOUSE
stn num: 2068, stn name: UBIN
stn num: 2033, stn name: TANJONG CHANGI
stn num: 1248, stn name: SULTAN SHOAL
stn num: 2034, stn name: TANAH MERAH
stn num: 1275, stn name: JURONG
stn num: 1894, stn name: TUAS (WEST JURONG)
stn num: 724, stn name: SEMBAWANG
stn num: 1895, stn name: WEST COAST
stn num: 1896, stn name: WEST TUAS
stn num: 1690, stn name: PORT SUDAN
stn num: 1600, stn name: ZANZIBAR
stn num: 446, stn name: KO TAPHAO NOI
stn num: 2230, stn name: PANWA CAPE
stn num: 1792, stn name: KO MATTAPHON
stn num: 174, stn name: KO LAK
stn num: 44, stn name: ADEN

***** Ocean Area: Southern *****

----- Ocean Bottom Stations -----

OBP stn: QD109072
OBP stn: DQ43118
OBP stn: DQ105443
OBP stn: DQ96819
OBP stn: DQ96820
OBP stn: DQ43122
OBP stn: DQ68485
OBP stn: DQ68489
OBP stn: DQ43513
OBP stn: DQ46251
OBP stn: DQ52026
OBP stn: DQ44935
OBP stn: DQ68483
OBP stn: DQ46267
OBP stn: DQ90803
OBP stn: 120411
OBP stn: QD49187
OBP stn: DQ40375
OBP stn: DQ43126
OBP stn: DQ41086
OBP stn: DQ38173
OBP stn: DQ93161
OBP stn: DQ41077
OBP stn: DQ41083
OBP stn: DQ68484

----- PSMSL stations -----

stn num: 988, stn name: BAHIA ESPERANZA
stn num: 913, stn name: ARGENTINE ISLANDS
stn num: 1603, stn name: PUERTO SOBERANIA
stn num: 858, stn name: ALMIRANTE BROWN
stn num: 1763, stn name: CAPE ROBERTS ANTARCTICA
stn num: 2029, stn name: SCOTT BASE
stn num: 1931, stn name: ROTHERA
stn num: 874, stn name: USHUAIA I
stn num: 1271, stn name: USHUAIA II
stn num: 473, stn name: PUNTA ARENAS
stn num: 1122, stn name: PUERTO WILLIAMS
stn num: 1785, stn name: DIEGO RAMIREZ
stn num: 1082, stn name: STANLEY
stn num: 1796, stn name: STANLEY II
stn num: 2263, stn name: PUNTA ARENAS II

Saturday, March 17, 2018

The Shapeshifters of Bullshitistan - 13

Gambler In Chief
I. Introduction

Gambling is in the air.

Secretary of State T. Rex was fired for criticizing Russia.

The Whut? House lied about that, saying that the firing was for other reasons.

FBI official McCabe was fired just before retiring because of what he described as an ongoing assault by The Bullshitter in Chief on the Russia Criminal Conspiracy case (cf. The Shapeshifters of Bullshitistan - 11).

And a U.S. Army Ranger Hall of Fame member publicly stated:
"Reluctantly I have concluded that President Trump is a serious threat to US national security. He is refusing to protect vital US interests from active Russian attacks. It is apparent that he is for some unknown reason under the sway of Mr Putin."
(General McCaffrey Criticism, emphasis added; cf About General McCaffrey). That reality has occurred to most everyone (outside the despotic minority) except for the majority in congress.

For example, a former CIA Director wrote:
"When the full extent of your venality, moral turpitude, and political corruption becomes known, you will take your rightful place as a disgraced demagogue in the dustbin of history. You may scapegoat Andy McCabe, but you will not destroy America...America will triumph over you."
(Ex-CIA Boss John Brennan Tears Into Donald Trump, emphasis added). The Don can't call that weak, so he is getting feedback for what he is himself causing.

II. A Diversion From The Stormy Thingy

I heard one former U.S. Attorney say that these events are a diversion to take the media attention off the Stormy Daniels Scandal.

That scandal has now been admitted to from The Don's side in the sense that they counter sued Stormy and want to now make a federal case out of it:
"President Donald Trump has jumped into the lawsuit filed against him by an adult film actress seeking to void a “hush agreement” about their relationship,
NoClue Ella de Dump
while his longtime attorney is claiming that they have the right to sue her for at least $20 million.

The latest twist comes after the White House initially claimed Trump had nothing to do with Trump Organization lawyer Michael Cohen’s payment of $130,000 to Stephanie Clifford ― better known by her stage name, Stormy Daniels ― just days before the 2016 presidential election.

Cohen filed papers Friday to move Clifford’s lawsuit from state court in California to a federal court there. Trump, through Beverly Hills lawyer Charles Harder, filed papers indicating that he agrees with Cohen that the matter belongs in federal court."
(Trump’s Legal Team Says It Can Sue Stormy Daniels For $20 Million). Whether a diversion or not, the firing of McCabe is seriously distasteful to those who see it as a mean, vindictive act against the Mueller probe.

What makes the diversion observation valid IMO is that new factors entered the picture yesterday when Stormy's lawyer pointed out that she had been threatened with physical harm if she talked (Stormy Daniels was threatened with physical harm, lawyer claims).

III. Conclusion

The Kremlin must have something quite substantial that causes The Don to gamble so much with obstruction of justice and criminal conspiracy charges hanging around.

What is for certain is that we are watching to see if what Director Brennan said to The Don ("America will triumph over you") will come true.

The previous post in this series is here.

Gambling storms ...

Thursday, March 15, 2018

Ocean Bottom Pressure Data

Oceans of the World
Today I am going to discuss some of the problems with Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) records.

What I did in preparation for this post was to generate data from the World Ocean Database (WOD) zones for each ocean area (see graphic to the left).

I used all PSMSL tide gauge stations in each ocean area, as well as all bottom pressure records from the same ocean areas.

Equatorial Indian
The tide gauge stations are found along the coasts of these ocean areas, while the OBP stations tend to be out to sea in deep waters.

I also included satellite based readings beginning in 1993.

Equatorial Pacific
The satellite dataset is the same for all graphs because it is the global mean average.

The tide gauge graphed lines are different in each graph because they are composed of tide gauge records from each individual ocean area.

The same goes for the OBP dataset, which is also from the different/individual ocean areas.

North Atlantic
You can see the OBP problem at once by comparing the sea level change shown by the tide gauges along the coast line, the global mean averages shown by the satellite data, and the two OBP panes.

North Indian
The OBP graph lines are all over the place and generally incoherent in terms of consistent accuracy (Estimating high frequency ocean bottom pressure variability).

This illustrates the major problems that arise in attempting to set up an OBP station that can watch the highest (a.k.a. deepest) sea level areas out in the deep ocean.

One paper indicates that we need a new and robust design for OBP stations:
"Long-term vertical seafloor displacements and geostrophic changes in the water column height could be easily monitored if pressure meters were less susceptible to drift. Currently, these signals, which have typical amplitudes
North Pacific
from decimeters to less than 1 mm/yr, cannot be differentiated from instrumental drift. In this paper, we introduce and outline a new constructional concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter that aims for unequivocal detection and monitoring of long-term trends. The concept is based on a differential pressure sensor that measures the pressure difference between the environment and a reference pressure within a sealed volume. This sealed volume conserves the instantaneous pressure at the moment of its closure at the monitoring location in a temperature-compensated manner. Furthermore, the approach enables easy in situ calibration of the differential pressure gauge by simply opening the reference pressure chamber to the environment and checking the zero point offset
(A new concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter capable of precision long-term monitoring in marine geodesy and oceanography). That is reason for hope.

South Pacific
The OBP stations do not establish the fact of sea level rise and fall, so we can determine the issues with what we have without them.

However, they are ultra critical when it comes to tsunami warnings and several related matters.

What they can offer, in terms of sea level change, is a monitoring system in the areas where sea level is highest.

That would be out in the areas that are generally far from civilization, far from the coastlines.

In that regard I am going to continue the search for the good datasets from good ocean area candidates.

That is, those in critical areas which are of long lasting quality and able to endure the great pressures down there in the deeper waters.

The next effort I will engage in is an attempt to round up all the active OBP stations in one subject area, and fully implement the story they tell.

South Atlantic
That may require additional focus and observation, because one malfunction can spoil things requiring a rejection of the data during the entire time span that the station is producing bad data.

Hopefully, the new instrument design mentioned in the paper I cited above will be active and in place shortly.

In the mean time I will continue to flag aberrant portions of the datasets I already have, and to clean them up.

There is 'out' and there are 'laws'. Lyrics to both here:

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Sea Level Change Update

Fig. 1
In today's post we take a look at the Permanent Service For Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) update of March 5, 2018.

But first I wanted to mention that I canceled yesterday's planned post about single stations of the ocean bottom pressure (OBP) type.
Fig. 2

Fig. 3
The reason is the data set is either not complete or is too corrupt to be used without extensive filtering as I mentioned in previous postings (The Ghost-Water Constant - 10, Databases Galore - 21).

That will take more time.

Associated with that is the fact that the OBP has promise, but it is nothing more than fine tuning of the Satellite Record.

The whole exercise is to bring the accuracy of sea level in the deep ocean to within a centimeter of accuracy (On The More Robust Sea Level Computation Techniques - 9).

In practical terms, which would be relevant and important to Sea Port Authorities for example, the OBP factor is not paramount.

The PSMSL tide gauge station records are quite substantial in terms of providing them with a glance of the past and an indication of their future experience in sea levels (The Extinction of Robust Sea Ports, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).
Fig. 4

Nevertheless, I would like to complete the construction of the OBP dataset in terms of both quality and quantity.

Today's graphs show the Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, a combination of both hemispheres, and satellite mean average sea level change (SLC).

The hemispheric views cover the years beginning in the late 1800's up until recent years.

The satellite record begins in 1993 and continues to the same year that the tide gauge stations do.

I should note that the golden 23 show a higher sea level finale than the hemispheric and satellite finales do.

The reason for that is the use of sea level fall (SLF) areas in the two hemispheres and their averages.

As a final comment, I will note that the major factor is that this latest data from PSMSL indicates an increase in sea level.

That sea level rise in the golden 23 ended up at 203 mm and change.

For a very good view of the ups and downs of SLC check out the NASA site (Sea Level Change).